Michael Schulte

It is my strong believe that the most practical ideas are born by bringing together small pieces from different minds.


The downstream processing including the chromatography of biopharmaceutical compounds has to make sure that the drugs administered to patients are of high quality and consistency. It is the key challenge to remove all side components or impurities, which could create allergic reactions or side effects. As a multitude of different compounds can be found in the initial cell culture harvest the chromatographic steps have to show a certain spectrum of interaction. In modern production processes two maximum three chromatographic steps are present to ensure an economic production, therefore these two or three chromatographic resins have to be designed with carefully to fulfill all the separation task, which are necessary to produce safe medicines. 

My vision for the future of our company is to play a leading role in all the future therapies to come. For new drug concepts, e.g. gene therapies or nucleic acid treatments new purification schemes have to be developed. These purification steps need to be efficient as well as economic to ensure a broad use of novel therapeutic approaches, which are today often still associated with prohibitive costs. It would be wonderful, if we can help bringing the therapies to market due to our knowledge in the design of materials, which remove impurities or concentrate the target compounds. 

Helping a little bit to fight diseases which are today still difficult to cure is my main motivation. The main source of ideas is talking to each other in an open and constructive way. You need a lot of trust in a team to make sure that ideas, which first may sound crazy will be born, discussed and developed further. It is my strong believe that the most practical ideas are born by bringing together small pieces from different minds. 

I was working during my Ph.D. work for 4 month in the labs of Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany due to a cooperation my professor had with them. This was in the 1990s, when it was a great challenge to find out the effects of the enantiomers of a chiral drugs. Enantiomers are compounds of one single drug substance which only differ in their geometrical orientation but not in there composition. The group in Münster, where I did my PhD work, did extensive research e.g. on the effects of the Thalidomide (Contergan) enantiomers trying to figure out, what caused the teratogenic effects. When I started to work at our company I was working on a novel type of a cardiovascular drug, which also exhibit strong differences of its enantiomers.

It is my strong believe that the most practical ideas are born by bringing together small pieces from different minds.

Michael Schulte

Responsible for research in the field of purification of very complex pharma. molecules


Joined Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany: 1995

Key research fields and topics:

  • Chromatographic purification
  • Synthesis of porous particles and membranes
  • Synthesis and use of ionic liquids
  • Synthesis of fuel cell membranes
  • Synthesis and application of cosmetic ingredients and drug excipients

CV & Scientific activities



  • Kryshtal, G.V., Zhdankina, G.M., Ignatiev, N.I., Schulte, M., Zlotin, S.G., The orthoester Johnson-Claisen rearrangement of allylic terpenols catalyzed by Ionic Liquids, Journal of Fluorine Chemistry, 183 (2016) 23-29  
  • Zavozin, A.G., Ignatiev, N.I., Schulte, M., Zlotin, S.G. Synthesis of novel tridentate pyrazole-bipyridine ligands for Co-complexes as redox-couples in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC), Tetrahedron 71 (2015) 8551-8556
  • Epishina, M.A., Kulikov, A.S., Ignatiev, N.I., Schulte, M., Makhova, N.N., Efficient Synthesis of tertiary acyclic amides by the Chapman rearrangement of aryl benzimidates in ionic liquids, Mendeleev Commun, 25 (2015) 126-128
  • Epishina, M.A., Kulikov, A.S., Ignatiev, N.I., Schulte, M., Makhova, N.N., Nucleophilic aromatic cine-substitution of hydrogen: the ionic liquid promoted von Richter reaction, Mendeleev Commun, 25 (2015) 41-43
  • Zavozin, A.G., Ignatiev, N.V., Schulte, M., Zlotin, S.G., Synthesis of thiazol derivatives bearing an incorporated Z-5-aminopent-3-enoic acid fragment, Tetrahedron 69 (34) (2013) 6975-80
  • Rabausch, U., Juergensen, J., Ilmberger, N., Böhnke, St., Fischer, S., Schubach, B., Oberle, M., Schulte, M., Streit, W.R., A Functional Screen for Detection of Novel Flavonoid Modifiying Enzymes. META: Metagenome Extract TLC Analysis, Applied and Environmental Microbiology 79(15) (2013) 4551-63
  • Thomas, H., Coquebert de Neuville, B., Storti, G., Morbidelli, M., Jöhnck, M., Schulte, M., Role of tentacles and protein loading on pore accessibility and mass transfer in cation exchange materials for proteins, J.Chromatogr A, 1285 (2013) 48-56
  • Epishina, M.A., Kulikov, A.S., Struchkova, M.I., Ignatiev, N.I., Schulte, M., Makhova, N.N., Ionic Liquids assisted Synthesis of 3,4-Dihydroisoquinolines by the Bishler-Napieralski Reaction Mendeleev Commun, 22 (2012) 267
  • Simirskaya, N.I., Ignatiev, N.V., Schulte, M., Zlotin, S.G. Mannich synthesis of acetylenic amino alcohols in aqueous ionic liquids, Mendeleev Commun, 22 (2012) 317-319
  • Kryshtal, G.V., Zhdankina, G.M., Ignatiev, N.V., Schulte, M., Zlotin, S.G., An efficient synthesis of C20-Carotene and Crocetin (Descrocetin) esters promoted by acidic ionic liquids, Tetrahedron Letters, 53 (2012) 4971-4973
  • Heitmann, S., Krings, J., Kreis, P., Lennert, A., Pitner, W.R., Gorak, A., Schulte, M., Recovery of n-butanol using ionic liquid-based pervaporation membranes, Sep. and Purification Technology 97 (2012) 106-114
  • Ilmberger,N., Meske,D., Jürgensen,J., Schulte,M., Barthen,P, Rabausch, U., Angelov, A., Mientus, M., Liebl,W., Schmitz,R.A., Streit, W., Metagenomic cellulases highly tolerant towards the presence of ionic liquids – linking thermostability and halotolerance, Appl.Microbiol.Biotechnol, 95,1 (2012) 135-46  
  • Sheremetev, A.B., Aleksandrova, N.S., Ignatiev, N.V., Schulte, M., Straightforward one-pot synthesis of benzofuroxans from o-halonitrobenzenes in ionic liquids, Mendeleev Commun. 22 (2012) 95-97
  • Temme, H., Dethloff,O., Pitner,W-R., Fischer, S., Scheurich, R., Schulte,M., Niemeyer,B.,  Identification of suitable ionic liquids for application in the enzymatic hydrolysis of rutin by an automated screening, Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 93(6) (2012) 2301-2308
  • Simirskaya, N.I., Ignatiev, N.V., Schulte, M., Zlotin, S.G., Unprecedented acceleration of the domino reaction between methyl 4-hydroxyalk-3-ynoates and amines in ionic liquids, Mendeleev Commun. 21 (2011) 94-96
  • Epishina, M.A., Kulikov, A.S., Ignatiev, N.V., Schulte, M., Makhova, N.N. Synthesis of 5-alkyl-2-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazoles and α,ω-bis(2-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazol-5-yl)alkanes in ionic liquids, Mendeleev Commun. 21 (2011) 331-333
  • Epishina, M.A., Kulikov, A.S., Ignatiev, N.V., Schulte, M., Makhova, N.N. Ionic liquid-assisted synthesis of 5-mono- and 1,5-disubstitiuted tetrazoles, Mendeleev Commun. 21 (2011) 334-336
  • Ignatiev,N., Schulte,M., Koppe,K., Barthen,P., Zlotin,S., Makhova,N., Sheremetev, A, Valente,A., Ionic Liquids – Advanced Reaction Media for Organic Synthesis, Phosphorous, Sulfur and Silicon, 186 (2011) 1205-1216
  • Müller-Späth,Th., Ströhlein,G., .Aumann,L., Kornmann,H., Valax,P., Delegrange,L., Charbaut,E., Baer,G.,  Lamproye,A.,Jöhnck, M., Schulte, M., Morbidelli, M. Model simulation and experimental validation of a cation-exchange IgG capture step in batch and continuous chromatography. J.Chromatogr A, 1218 (2011) 5195-5204
  • Vygodski, Ya.S., Sapozhnikov,D.A., Shaplov,A.S., Losinskaya,E.I., Ignatiev,N., Schulte,M., Vlasov, P.S., Malishkina, A. New Ionic Liquids with hydrolytically stable anions as alternatives to hexafluorophosphate and tetrafluoroborate salts in the free radical polymerization and preparation of ion-conducting composites. Polymer Journal, 43, 126-135, (2011).
  • Kryshtal, G., Zhdankina,G., Ignatiev,N., Schulte,M., Zlotin, S. Acidic Ionic Liquid-catalyzed homologation of the polyene chain in ,-e (Polyenals). Tetrahedron, 67 (1), 173-178, (2011).
  • Neumann, J., Grundmann, O., Thöming,J., Schulte,M., Stolte, St. Anaerobic biodegradability of ionic liquids under denitrifying conditions. Green Chemistry, 12, 620-627, (2010).
  • Epishina,M.A., Kurikov,A.S.,Ignatiev,N.V., Schulte,M., Mahkova, N.N. The first example of Schmidt reaction in Ionic Liquids.  Mendeleev Communications, 20 (6), 335-336, (2010).
  • Müller-Späth,T., Aumann, L., Ströhlein,G., Kornmann,H., Valax,P., Delegrange, L., Charbaut, E., Baer,G., Lamproye,A., Jöhnck, M., Schulte, M., Morbidelli, M. Two step capture and purification of an IgG2 using multicolumn countercurrent solvent gradient purification, Biotechnology and Bioengineering. 107 (6), 974-984, (2010).
  • Franke,A., Forrer,N., Butté,A., Cvijetic,B., Morbidelli, M., Jöhnck, M., Schulte, M. Role of the ligand density in cation exchange materials for the purification of proteins. J.Chromatogr A, 1217, 2216-2225, (2010).
  • Barrande,M., Beurroies,I., Denoyel,R., Tatarova,I., Gramblicka, M., Polakovic, M., Joehnck, M., Schulte, M. Characterisation of porous materials for bioseparation.  J.Chromatogr. A, 1216, 6906-6916, (2009).
  • Pottkämper,J., Barthen, P., Ilmberger,N., Schwaneberg,U., Schenk, A., Schulte,M., Ignatiev,N., Streit, W.R.  Applying metagenomics for the identification of bacterial cellulases that are stable in ionic liquid. Green Chemistry, 11, 957-965, (2009).
  • Unger,K.K., Skudas,R., Schulte,M. Particle packed columns and monolithic columns in high-performance liquid chromatography – comparison and critical appraisal. J.Chromatogr. 1184, 393-415, (2008).
  • Gheorghe,A., Schulte,M., Reiser, O. Synthesis of Functionalized Pyrrolidin-2-ones and (S)-Vigabatrin from Pyrrole. J.Org.Chem 71, 2173-2176, (2006).
  • Lohrmann, M., Schulte, M., Strube,J. Generic method for systematic phase selection and method development of biochromatographic processes. Part I: Selection of a suitable cation-exchanger for the purification of a pharmaceutical protein. J.Chromatogr. 1092, 89-100, (2005).
  • Schulte,M., Lühring,N., Keil,A., Sanghvi, Y. Purification of Oligo-DMT-on by Simulated Moving Bed (SMB)-chromatography. Org.Proc.Res.Dev. 9, 212-215, (2005).
  • Schulte,M., Sanghvi,Y. Therapeutic Oligonucleotides: State-of-the-art in purification technologies. Current Opinion in Drug Discovery and Development 7 (6), 765-776, (2004).
  • Michel, M., Schmidt-Traub,H., Ditz,R., Schulte,M., Kinkel,J., Stark,W., Küpper, M., Vorbrodt, M. Development of an integrated process for electrochemical reaction and chromatographic SMB-separation. Journal of Applied Electrochemistr, 33, 939-949, (2003).
  • Michel, M., Schmidt-Traub,H., Ditz,R., Schulte,M., Kinkel,J., Stark,W., Küpper, M., Vorbrodt, M. Vergleich von integrierter und konventioneller Verschaltung von elektrochemischen Reaktoren mit chromatographischer SMB-Trennung. Chemie Ingenieur Technik 75 (8), 1039-1040, (2003).
  • Ströhlein,G., Schulte,M., Strube,J. Hybrid Processes: Design Method for Optimal Coupling of Chromatography and Crystallization Units. Separation Science and Technology, 38, (14) 3353-3383, (2003).
  • Schulte,M., Devant, R., Grosser,R.  Enantioseparation of Gantofiban precursors on chiral stationary phases of the poly-(N-acryloyl amino acid derivative)-type. J.Pharm.Biomed.Anal. 27, 627-637, (2002).
  • Strube,J., Gärtner,R., Schulte,M. Process development of product recovery and solvent recycling steps of chromatographic separation processes. Chem.Eng.Journal 85, 273-288, (2002).
  • Schulte,M., Dingenen,J.  Monolithic silica sorbents for the separation of diastereomers by means of Simulated Moving Bed (SMB) – chromatography. J.Chromatogr. 923 (1-2), 17 – 25, (2001).
  • Schulte,M., Strube,J. Chromatographic enantioseparations by Simulated Moving Bed (SMB) chromatography. J.Chromatogr. 906, 399 – 415, (2001).
  • Jupke, A., Epping,A.,  Fricke,J., Schmidt-Traub,H., Schulte,M. Experimentell verifizierte Prozeßmodelle als Grundlage zur Synthese chromatographischer Prozesse. Chemie Ingenieur Technik  72 (6), 593 – 598, (2000).
  • Schulte, M., Britsch,L., Strube, J. Continuous preparative liquid chromatography in the downstream processing of biotechnological products. Acta Biotechnologica 20, (1), 3 – 15 (2000).
  • Schulte,M., Lubda,D., Delp,A., Dingenen, J. Preparative monolithic silica sorbents (PrepRODs) and their use in preparative liquid chromatography. J.High Res Chrom, 23, (1), 100-105, (2000).
  • Strube, J., Jupke, A., Epping,A., Schmidt-Traub,H., Schulte,M., Devant,R. Design, Optimization and Operation of Chromatographic Processes in the Production of enantiomerically pure Pharmaceuticals. Chirality, 11, 440-450, (1999).
  • Ditz,R., Schulte,M., Strube, J.  SMB-Technology in Pharmaceutical New Product Development - ist Impact on the Industry´s Race to the Market. Current Opinion in Drug Discovery and Development, 1(3) 264-271 (1998).
  • Strube,J., Schmidt-Traub,H., Schulte,M., Ditz,R. Comparison of optimized batch and SMB chromatographic processes. Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference of Fundamentals of Adsorption, Editor F.Meunier, Elsevier, Paris 473-478 (1998).
  • Schulte,M., Lubda,D., Ludemann-Hombourger,O. SilicaRods as novel non-particular stationary phases for preparative batch- and SMB-chromatography. Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference of Fundamentals of Adsorption, Editor F.Meunier, Elsevier, Paris 365-370 (1998).
  • Strube,J., Schmidt-Traub,H., Schulte, M. Auslegung, Betrieb und ökonomische Betrachtung chromatographischer Trennprozesse. Chem.Ing.Techn., 70, 1271- 1279, (1998).
  • Strube, J., Haumreißer,S., Schmidt-Traub,H., Schulte,M., Ditz,R. Comparison of batch elution and continuous simulated moving bed (SMB)-chromatography. Organic Process and Research Development, 2, 305-319, (1998).
  • Kinkel,J.N., Schulte,M, Seebach,D, Sting,A.R., Hoffmann,M., Küsters, E. Analytical and preparative Chromatographic Resolution of Synthetically usefull Oxazolidinones and Dihydro-imidazoles using HPLC on chiral stationary phases. J.Chromatogr., A, 796, 299-307, (1998).
  • Schulte,M, Derwenskus,K.H., Ditz,R. Kontinuierliche Chromatographie - ökonomischer Zugang zu Wertprodukten. Nachr.Chem.Techn.Labor., 45 (5), 487-492, (1997).
  • Schulte,M., Devant, R., Jonas,R., Keil,A., Charton,F. Enantioseparation of a novel Ca-sensitizing drug by Simulated Moving Bed (SMB)-Chromatography. J.prakt.Chem., 339, 315-321, (1997).
  • Schmidt-Traub,H., Altenhöner,U., Meurer,M., Strube,J., Schulte,M. Dynamic simulation of simulated moving bed chromatography processes for the optimization of chiral separartions. J.Chromatography 769, 81-92, (1997).
  • Schulte,M., Ditz,R., Devant,R., Kinkel,J., Charton,F. Comparison of the specific productivity of different chiral stationary phases used for Simulated Moving Bed – Chromatography. J.Chromatography 769, 93-100, (1997)
  • Schulte,M., Kinkel,J., Nicoud,R.M., Charton, F. Simulierte Gegenstromchromatographie - eine effiziente Technik zur Herstellung optisch aktiver Verbindungen im industriellen Maßstab. Chemie Ingenieur Technik, 68 (6) 670-683 (1996).
  • Hazmuka, R.F., Schulte,M. Simulierte moving bed - Technologie: Chromatographie mit Zukunft. Biotec, 4, 19-22 (1995)
  • Seebach,D., Hoffmann,Th., Kühnle,F.N.M., Kinkel,J.N., Schulte, M. Preparation, structure and properties of all possible cyclic dimers (Diolides) of 3-Hydroxybutanoic acid. Helv.Chim.Acta, 78, 1525 – 1544, (1995).
  • Kinkel,J.N., Schulte,M., Nicoud,R.M., Charton,F. Simulated moving bed (SMB) -chromatography: An efficient method for performing large scale separation of optical isomers. Proceedings of the Chiral Europe ´95 Symposium, Spring Innovations Limited, Stockport, UK, p.121 (1995).

Book Edition

  • Preparative Chromatography of Fine Chemicals and Pharmaceutical Agents, 2nd Edition, Editors. H.Schmidt-Traub, A.Seidel-Morgenstern, M.Schulte Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2012

Book Chapters

  • Chiral Derivatization Chromatography in Chiral Separation Techniques, Editor: G. Subramanian, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2001
  • Fundamentals and general terminology; Columns, packings and stationary phases; Selection of chromatographic systems; Process concepts in Preparative Chromatography of Fine Chemicals and Pharmaceutical Agents, Editor. H.Schmidt-Traub, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2005
  • Technische Chromatographie (J.Strube, W.Arlt, M.Schulte) in Fluidverfahrenstechnik: Grundlagen, Methodik, Technik, Praxis, Editor R.Gödecke, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2006
  • Continuous chromatography in the down-stream processing of products from biotechnological and natural origin (M.Schulte, K.Wekenborg, J.Strube) in Bioseparations and BioprocessingEditor: G.Subramanian, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2007, p. 225-255
  • Process Engineering and Miniplant Technology (J.Strube, W.Bäcker, M.Schulte) in Industrial Scale Natural Product Extraction Editors: H.Barth, St.Pilz Wiley-VCH Weinheim, 2011, p.123-180


  • 24.12.1998 - DE197 26 151, 4.6.2002 - US 639862, Use of monolithic sorbent for preparative chromatographic separations
  • 22.4.2003 - EP 99963388.6,US 6551512, Continuous method for separating substances according to molecular size
  • 29.11.2005, JP2005021913, Separating agent for optical isomers and separation column for optical isomers
  • 26.2.2007, DE502007005301.5, EP2114965, US8,211,277, Salts with Perfluoroalkylfluorochlorophosphate anion
  • 4.10.2007, US 20070227957, Separating agent for optical isomers and separation column for optical isomers
  • 22.4.2008, WO2011/095277, New Bis(perfluoralkyl)phosphinyl amides and hydrazides
  • 24.4.2008, US 20080096939, Process for preparation of Pramipexole by chiral chromatography
  • 25.6.2008, EP2303902, US20110124873, WO2010/009818, Bis(perfluoralkyl)phosphinous acids and their derivatives
  • 17.2.2009, WO2011/085964, Salts with Di-cyano-di-hydrido-borate anion as component for dye-sensitized solar cell electrolytes
  • 5.3.2009, DE102010013971, WO2011/124307, Fluorinating agents with Perfluoralkylphosphate anion
  • 15.5.2009 - WO 2009/152906, 24.5.2011 - US 20110071324, Use of ionic liquids with tetracyanoborate anions as a solvent for the extraction of alcohols from aqueous solutions
  • 28.5.2009 - WO2010/000357, 12.5.2011 - US 20110112337, EP2300117, Use of ionic liquids containing tricyanomethide anions as a solvent for the extraction of alcohols from aqueous solutions
  • 18.11.2009, WO2010/066330, Enzyme-catalyzed method
  • 26.5.2010, WO2011/085965, Salts containing Perfluoro-alkyl-cyanofluoro borate anions for Dye-sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) Electrolytes
  • 27.9.2010, WO2012/041431, EP2621939, Fluoralkyl Fluorophosphorane Anions
  • 30.9.2010, WO2011/041437, EP2526105, Electrolyte formulations
  • 18.12.2009 - DE 10 2009 058 969, 6.12.2010 - EP2010007397, Verbindung mit (Perfluoralkyl)fluorohydrogenhphosphat-Anion
  • 25.1.2011, WO2012/041434, Process and application of ionic liquids with cyano-alkoxy-fluoroborate anions
  • 31.1.2011, WO2012/041437, Electrolyte formulations with fluorotricyanoborate anions
  • 21.4.2011, US 20110089095, Separating agent for optical isomers and separation column for optical isomers
  • 28.4.2011, US 20110094955, Separating agent for optical isomers and separation column for optical isomers
  • 31.5.2011, DE10 2011 103 754, 23.05.2012 - EP2714586, WO2012/163488, Process for the synthesis of ionic liquids with dicyano-dihydrido-borates
  • 31.5.2011 - WO2012/163489, 23.05.2012 - EP11004431, Salts with Hydrido-tricyanoborate anion
  • 31.5.2011 - WO2012/163490, 23.05.2012 - EP11004433, Use of salts with dihydrido-dicyanoborate anion in DSSC electrolytes
  • 30.08.2011, EP 2621940, Fluoralkylfluorphosphoran-Addukte
  • 30.8.2011, WO2012/048772, EP 2621939, Functionalized Fluoroalkyl Fluorophosphate Salts
  • 26.2.2010, WO 2010/108583, 19.1.2012, US 20120016121, EP 2411374, Process for the separation of enantiomers of 3,6-dihydro-1,3,5-triazine derivatives
  • 18.10.2012, US 20120264946, Compounds with (perfluoroalkyl)fluorohydrogenphosphate
  • 12.1.2011 - WO2011/085967, 22.11.2012 - US 20120296096, EP2526106, Compounds containing perfluoralkyl-cyano-alkoxy-borate anions or perfluoro-cyano-alkoxy-fluoro-borate anions  
  • 30.11.2012, New tridentate cobalt-complexes with cyano-borate anions
  • 30.11.2012, DE102013021029, New cobalt-complexes with cyano-borate anions
  • 18.1.2010 - WO2011/085966, 6.12.2012 - US 20120309981, Process for the preparation of perfluoralkylcyano- or perfluoralkylcyanofluoroborates
  • 12.1.2011 - WO2011/085965, 6.12.2012 - US 20120309882, EP 2526105, Electrolyte formulations
  • 6.7.2012 - 24.1.2013 WO2013/010641, Compounds containing alkyl-cyano-borate or alkyl-cyano-fluoroborate-anions
  • 6.7.2012 - WO2013/010640, 24.1.2013 - EP2731954, Compounds containing alkyl-alkoxy-cyanoborate anions
  • 2.3.2012 - 6.9.2013 WO2013/127493, Process for producing phosphinic acid esters
  • 5.4.2012 - 10.10.2013, DE102012006896, Silikate mit organischen Kationen
  • 30.11.2012 - EP2925768, WO2014/082704, DE102013021029, Cobaltcomplex salts
  • 17.10.2014 - EP3207047, WO2016/058668, Alkenyl(perfluoralkly)phosphinsäure
  • 30.07.2014 - WO 2016/015811, DE102014011089, Method for producing salts having hydridocyanoborate anions
  • 14.10.2014 - WO 2016/058665, DE102014014967, Method for producing compounds with monofluorotricyanoborate anions
  • 17.12.2014, DE 102015006283, Verbindung mit Fluoralkyl(cyanomethyl)fluorophosphat-Anionen
  • 10.9.2015, DE 102016001334, Verfahren zur Herstellung von Kaliummonofluorotricyanoborat
  • 15.1.2016, EP16812678.7, WO2017/121445, Noreugenin-Glykosid-Derivate