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TAG overview

Glossary

African sleeping sickness

Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), also known as sleeping sickness, is a parasitic disease transmitted by the bite of the tsetse fly. The disease mostly affects poor populations living in remote rural areas of Africa. Untreated, it is usually fatal.

Big Data

Extremely large data sets that may be analyzed computationally to reveal patterns, trends and associations, especially relating to human behavior and interactions.

Biodiversity

The diversity of ecosystems, habitats and landscapes on earth, the diversity of the species, and the genetic diversity within a biological species or population.

Chagas disease

A potentially life-threatening illness caused by the protozoan parasite. An estimated eight million people are infected worldwide, mostly in Latin America.

Chaotropic

A chaotropic agent is a molecule in water solution that can disrupt the hydrogen bonding network between water molecules. This affects the stability of the native state of other molecules in the solution by weakening the hydrophobic effect.

Chatbot

A computer program or an artificial intelligence that conducts a conversation via auditory or textual methods.

CO2 equivalents

CO2 equivalents (CO2eq) indicate how much a specified quantity of a specific greenhouse gas contributed to the greenhouse effect, using the global warming potential of carbon dioxide as a reference.

CRISPR/Cas

A biomolecular method for targeting, cutting and editing the DNA of an organism (gene editing). Experts think this technique has great potential for curing diseases or generating plants and animals with new traits.

DMF

Dimethylformamide is a clear, colorless, hygroscopic liquid with a high dielectric constant. It is employed as a solvent in the production of textiles, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, and adhesives. The ECHA (European Chemicals Agency) has designated DMF as a substance of very high concern (SVHC) and included it in the candidate list for authorization.

Due diligence

A risk analysis exercised with particular care.

EDTA

Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is a chemical agent that sequesters metal ions to prevent DNA degradation.

EHS

Short for “Environment, Health and Safety”, this refers to environmental management, health protection and occupational safety throughout a company.

End-user declaration

A binding customer statement regarding the intended use of a product.

Endemic countries

Countries in which a certain disease, in many cases an infectious disease, occurs.

EQ

Our Group Environment, Health, Safety, Security, Quality function

Equality Act

A pending U.S. law with a special focus on LGBTQI+ people (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer or questioning, intersex, and additional self-identifying members of the community). It prohibits discrimination on the basis of the sex, sexual orientation and gender identity.

ESG ratings

These are used to assess a company’s financial performance through factors that include aspects of environmental management, social issues and good governance.

Exposure assessment

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency defines exposure assessment as the determination or estimation (qualitative or quantitative) of the magnitude, frequency, duration, and route of exposure between an agent and an organism. This analysis forms part of the chemical safety assessment process.

Freshwater

Water containing 1,000 mg or less of dissolved solids per liter.

Germline

The cell sequence from which the germ cells (oocytes and sperm) arise within the individual development of multicellular animals and humans. The somatic cell lines branching off from the germ line form the body (the soma).

GHS

Short for "Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals", this refers to an international standard system to classify chemicals that covers labeling as well as safety data sheets.

Good clinical practice (GCP)

An international quality standard that enforces tight guidelines on ethical aspects of clinical studies.

Good distribution practice (GDP)

An EU guideline that regulates the proper distribution of medicinal products for human use.

Good manufacturing practice (GMP)

A system for ensuring that products are consistently manufactured and controlled according to quality standards. These guidelines are used in the production of medicines, active pharmaceutical ingredients and cosmetics, as well as foodstuffs and feed.

Greenhouse gases

Gases in the atmosphere that contribute to global warming. They can be either naturally occurring or caused by humans (such as CO2 emissions generated by burning fossil fuels).

GxP

The general term for good practice quality guidelines and regulations that are used in many fields, especially the medical, pharmaceutical and pharmaceutical chemistry industries.

Humanoid

A term that means human-like.

ICH

The International Council for Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) aims to promote uniform assessment criteria for product registration in Europe, the United States and Japan. The ICH develops guidelines for the evaluation of the quality, effectiveness and safety of medicinal products.

In vitro

Procedures involving components of an organism that were isolated from their usual biological surroundings (such as test tube experiments).

In vivo

Latin for “within the living”, this term describes processes that take place within a living organism.

Investigational drug

A pharmaceutical form of an active ingredient or placebo being tested or used as a reference in a clinical trial, including approved as well as unapproved products when used or assembled (formulated or packaged) in a way different from the approved form, when used for an unapproved indication, or when used to gain further information about an approved use.

ISO 14001

This international standard defines globally recognized requirements for an environmental management system.

ISO 45001

This international standard defines globally recognized requirements for an occupational health and safety management system.

ISO 50001

This international standard defines globally recognized requirements for an energy management system.

ISO 9001

This international standard defines globally recognized requirements for a quality management system.

Leishmaniasis

A group of diseases caused by protozoan parasites. These parasites are transmitted to humans by the bites of the infected female phlebotomine sand fly. There are three main forms of leishmaniasis: cutaneous, visceral or kala-azar, and mucocutaneous.

LGBTQI+

This abbreviation stands for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer or Questioning, Intersex, and additional self-identifying members of the community.

Liquid biopsy

Sampling and analysis of non-solid biological tissue such as blood.

Liquid crystals (LC)

A hybrid of a crystalline and liquid state. In general, molecules are perfectly arranged only when in a solid crystal state, in contrast to the liquid state, when they move around chaotically. However, liquid crystals are a hybrid of the two states: Although they are liquid, they exhibit a certain crystalline arrangement. Their rod-shaped molecules align themselves like a shoal of fish. In addition, they respond to the electromagnetic waves of light like tiny antennae. Therefore, such swarms of molecules can either allow specially prepared “polarized” light to pass through, or they can block it. This takes place in the pixels of liquid crystal displays – as it does similarly in liquid crystal windows, which can provide shade against sunlight.

Location-based approach

Location-based figures are calculated on the basis of the average emission factors of the area in which the electricity consumption takes place. In most cases, the average at country level is used here.

LTIR

The lost time injury rate measures the number of accidents resulting in missed days of work (one or more days) per one million man-hours.

Managing director

At our company, this individual is ultimately responsible for ensuring that their subsidiary, including R&D and manufacturing centers, complies with all laws and regulations applicable to its business, including our Guidelines.

Market-based approach

Marked-based figures are calculated on the basis of emission factors provided by electricity suppliers specifically for the electricity they sell.

Neglected tropical disease (NTD)

Diseases that occur primarily in low- and middle-income countries. NTDs include schistosomiasis, intestinal worms, trachoma, lymphatic filariasis, and onchocerciasis. This group of diseases is called neglected because, despite the large number of people affected, they have historically received less attention and research funding than other diseases.

NMP

N-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidone a polar aprotic compound that is miscible with water and has good solvency properties. NMP is used in the manufacture of polymers, semiconductors, batteries and pharmaceuticals. The ECHA (European Chemicals Agency) has designated NMP as a substance of very high concern (SVHC) and included it in the candidate list for authorization.

Nucleases

A group of enzymes whose primary function is to partially or fully degrade nucleic acids.

OHSAS

The Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series (OSHAS) is an international occupational health and safety management system. As of March 2021 the norm ISO 45001 will replace the former occupational health and safety standard OHSAS 18001.

Orodispersible tablet

A tablet that dissolves in the mouth within 30 seconds and does not have to be taken with water. The active ingredient is absorbed through the mucous membrane in the mouth and also partly through the lining of the stomach.

Other water

Water containing more than 1,000 mg of dissolved solids per liter.

Patent pool

A consortium of at least two competing companies that allows partners to share the use of patents relating to a particular technology.

Patient access programs

Self-sustaining commercial programs with a revenue-driven purpose which provide medicines for underserved populations, either through free products or a reduced treatment fee.

Patient support programs

Any organized system providing services and direct patient or patient-caregiver interactions that are intended and designed to educate patients about certain diseases, and help patients with access to and/or the management of prescribed medicines and/or disease outcomes and/or offer doctors support for their patients.

Payer formularies

A medication formulary is a list of prescription medications that are preferred by a recipient’s health plan or insurer.

Pharmacovigilance

The science and activities related to the detection, evaluation, understanding, and prevention of adverse reactions or other drug-related problems.

Phase I study

Phase I clinical trials test a new therapeutic candidate in a small group of people (for example, 20-80) for the first time to evaluate safety (for instance, to determine a safe dosage range and to identify side effects).

Phase II study

Phase II clinical trials study the medical or behavioral intervention in a larger group of people (several hundred) to determine efficacy and to further evaluate its safety.

Phase III study

Phase III studies investigate the efficacy of the medical or behavioral intervention in large groups of human subjects (from several hundred to several thousand) by comparing the intervention to other standard or experimental interventions as well as to monitor adverse effects, and to collect information that will allow the intervention to be used safely.

Prediabetes

A condition regarded as indicative that a person is at risk of progressing to Type 2 diabetes.

Process-related emissions

Greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere during manufacturing operations.

Public-private partnership (PPP)

A collaboration between public sector (government) organizations, private companies and/or not-for-profit organizations.

Pulse survey

A pulse survey is a short employee survey that focuses on a specific topic to gauge the current sentiment of the workforce. This can, for example, relate to a single business unit in the case of change processes or be targeted to the entire workforce, as in the case of the Covid-19 pandemic.

(Q)SAR

Structure-activity relationship (SAR) and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models – collectively referred to as (Q)SARs – are mathematical models that can be used to predict the physicochemical, biological and environmental fate properties of compounds from the knowledge of their chemical structure. These models are available for free or as commercial software.

Read-across

Grouping of substances and read-across is one of the most commonly used alternative approaches for filling data gaps in registrations submitted under REACH. This approach uses relevant information from analogous (‘source') substances to predict the properties of ‘target' substances. If the grouping and read-across approach is applied correctly, experimental testing can be reduced as there is no need to test every target substance.

Registration dossiers

One part of the REACH registration process is the preparation of a technical dossier and its submission to the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA). The information that a registration dossier should contain includes the physical-chemical, toxicological and ecotoxicological characteristics of the substances, human and environmental exposure, intended uses, classification and labelling, and recommended risk management measures.

Risk-sharing agreement

An agreement between the producer or manufacturer and the payer or provider that allows access to a health technology through coverage or reimbursement under certain conditions.

Robotics

Robotics or robot technology concerns the drafting, design, control, production, and operation of robots, e.g. industrial or service robots.

Role

We use a market-oriented system to rate positions within the company. To facilitate consistency across the organization, each position is assigned a specific role, with an overarching job architecture classifying each role as one of 11 levels, 15 functions and an array of career types (Core Operations, Services & Support Groups; Experts; Managers; Project Managers).

Schistosomiasis

A parasitic disease spread in warm lakes and ponds by snails that serve as intermediate hosts.

Scope 1

Scope 1 includes emissions that occur in our company, for example in the generation of energy from fossil fuels.

Scope 2

Scope 2 includes emissions from purchased energy such as electricity or district heating.

Scope 3

Scope 3 includes indirect greenhouse gas emissions, such as the extraction and production of purchased materials, transport-related activities, waste disposal, and employee travel.

Scorecard

An evaluation tool for measuring, documenting and controlling activities using metrics.

Security

This term stands for all necessary measures and governance activities to detect, analyze, handle, and mitigate security- and crime-based threats to the company. This helps to protect employees as well as the tangible and intangible assets of the company.

Signal management

A set of activities performed to determine whether, based on an examination of individual case safety reports, aggregated data from active surveillance systems or studies, scientific literature information, or other data sources, there are new risks associated with an active substance or a medicinal product or whether known risks have changed, as well as any related recommendations, decisions, communications, and tracking.

Soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH

Soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) is considered the most widespread of NTDs and has a particularly damaging impact on the health and development of children. Approximately 1.5 billion people, nearly 20% of the world’s population, are infected with STH. It is transmitted by eggs present in human feces, which can contaminate the soil in areas where sanitation is poor. The most common species that affect people are roundworm, whipworm, and hookworm.

Spontaneous reports on adverse effects

If a side effect occurs while using a medicine and is reported, this is called a spontaneous report because the adverse reaction is reported spontaneously (for example by doctors or patients) and not in a trial or an observational study.

Stakeholder

People or organizations that have a legitimate interest in a company, entitling them to make justified demands. Stakeholders include people such as employees, business partners, neighbors in the vicinity of our sites, and shareholders.

STEM

Science, technology, engineering and mathematics.

Stem cell lines

Groups of stem cells derived from animal or human tissue. They can be cultivated in vitro and multiply indefinitely.

Stem cells

Undifferentiated cells with the potential to develop into many different cell types that carry out different functions.

Sunshine Act

The Sunshine Provisions of the U.S. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act aim to create more transparent relationships between manufacturers of drugs, medical devices and medical aids on the one hand, and doctors and teaching hospitals on the other.

Thin films

A very thin layer (one atom or one molecule thick) of a substance deposited on a supporting material such as a semiconductor. Customers use our products to create such thin films.

Traces

Substances dissolved in water that are present only in minute amounts. Also referred to as micropollutants, these are synthetic substances present in concentrations ranging from one nanogram to one microgram per liter of water.

Transfer of value

Direct and indirect transfers of value, whether in cash, in kind or otherwise (for instance promotional purposes).

Translational cell culture models

A cellular model system that recapitulates and/or predicts a specific human (in vivo/clinical) outcome.

TRIPS

The Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights is an international legal agreement between all the member nations of the World Trade Organization. TRIPS seeks to ensure that the measures and procedures for enforcing intellectual property rights do not become a barrier to lawful trade.

Vivarium

The vivarium, also known as animal research facility, is a specially designed building type, which accommodates controlled environments for the care, use and maintenance of experimental animals.

WASH

This stands for “water, sanitation and hygiene”.

WLTP

Lawmakers require standardized test procedures to measure how much fuel a car consumes and whether it complies with the emissions limits. The new Worldwide Harmonised Light Vehicle Test Procedure (WLTP) took effect in the EU on September 1, 2017 and is now the official type approval testing procedure for new passenger cars across the EU. It succeeded the NEDC (New European Driving Cycle), which took effect in 1992.

Information

The current Sustainability Report 2021 can be found here.