Sustainability Report 2021

Environment

TAG overview

Total greenhouse gas emissions (Scope 1 and 2 of the GHG Protocol)

Total greenhouse gas emissions (Scope 1 and 2 of the GHG Protocol)1,2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

metric kilotons

 

2018

 

2019

 

20203

 

2021
The Group

 

2021
thereof
Merck KGaA,
Darmstadt,
Germany

Total CO2eq4 emissions

 

636

 

621

 

2,028

 

1,843

 

153

Thereof

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

direct CO2eq emissions (Scope 1)

 

332

 

341

 

1,706

 

1,522

 

115

indirect CO2eq emissions5 (Scope 2)

 

304

 

280

 

322

 

321

 

38

Biogenic CO2 emissions

 

13

 

13

 

13

 

15

 

0

1

In line with the Greenhouse Gas Protocol, for all previous years greenhouse gas emissions were calculated based on the current corporate structure as of Dec. 31 of the reporting year and retroactively adjusted for acquisitions or divestments of (parts of) companies, or for changes in emission factors (portfolio-adjusted).

2

Baseline for our emission targets is 2020.

3

Includes Versum Materials as of 2020.

4

eq = equivalent

5

The figures presented here have been calculated in accordance with the market-based method.

Our response to the CDP Climate change contains a detailed description of our calculation methods.

We have included the following gases in our calculation of direct and indirect CO2eq emissions:

Direct CO2 emissions: CO2, HFCs, PFCs, CH4, N2O, NF3, SF6.

Indirect CO2 emissions: CO2.

In 2021, we emitted 0.09 kg of CO2eq per euro of net sales.

Other relevant indirect greenhouse gas emissions (Scope 3 of the GHG Protocol)

Other relevant indirect greenhouse gas emissions (Scope 3 of the GHG Protocol)1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

in metric kilotons of CO2eq2

 

2018

 

2019

 

2020

 

2021

Total gross other indirect emissions

 

348

 

339

 

5,030

 

5,716

Purchased goods & services (category 1)3

 

n/a

 

n/a

 

3,040

 

3,572

Capital goods (Category 2)3

 

n/a

 

n/a

 

293

 

291

Fuel- and energy-related emissions, not included in Scope 1 or 2 (category 3)

 

131

 

127

 

102

 

143

Upstream transportation & distribution (category 4)4

 

n/a

 

n/a

 

264

 

2645

Waste generated in operations (category 5)

 

47

 

50

 

85

 

79

Business travel (category 6)6,7

 

104

 

87

 

32

 

26

Employee commuting (category 7)

 

66

 

75

 

90

 

94

Upstream leased assets (category 8)8

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

Downstream transportation & distribution (category 9)4

 

n/a

 

n/a

 

8

 

85

Processing of sold products (category 10)9

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

Use of sold products (category 11)4

 

n/a

 

n/a

 

1,091

 

1,213

End-of-life treatment of sold products (category 12)4

 

n/a

 

n/a

 

23

 

235

Downstream leased assets (category 13)

 

0

 

0

 

2

 

2

Franchises (category 14)10

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

Investments (category 15)

 

n/a

 

n/a

 

0

 

1

1

In line with the Greenhouse Gas Protocol, for all previous years greenhouse gas emissions were calculated based on the current corporate structure as of Dec. 31 of the reporting year and retroactively adjusted for acquisitions or divestments of (parts of) companies, or for changes in emission factors (portfolio-adjusted).

2

eq = equivalent

3

The reported figures contain 95-97% of our total spend. The difference stems from smaller sites that are not integrated in our Group-wide purchase volume data. 2020 data are slightly over-reported (approx. 3%) as the currency conversion factor (USD to EUR) from 2021 was used. Non-categorized spends are distributed pro rate to category 1 and 2.

4

Compared to other Scope 3 categories, the screening of the emissions in this category contains more uncertainties. Their impact cannot be estimated more precisely at this time. We are working on improving the accuracy of these data.

5

Due to high efforts for data preparation, we reference 2020 data for 2021.

6

Since 2021, we have applied a new calculation approach for 2021 and 2020. The figure for 2020 was therefore adjusted retrospectively.

7

Air travel, hotel stays, rental car travels, rail travel (German Railway)

8

Already covered under Scope 1 and 2 emissions

9

Our company produces a huge variety of intermediate products for various purposes. Due to their many applications and our customer structure, the associated greenhouse gas emissions cannot be tracked in a reasonable fashion.

10

This category is not relevant for us as we do not operate franchises, i.e. businesses operating under a license to sell or distribute another company’s goods or services. Out-licensing in the pharmaceutical sector is not regarded as franchising.

Details on the calculation (methodology, assumptions, uncertainties) of the Scope 3 categories can be found in the Scope 3 document.

Biogenic emissions (Scope 3), if present, are not being recorded.

Emissions of ozone-depleting substances

Emissions of ozone-depleting substances

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

metric tons

 

2018

 

2019

 

2020

 

2021

Total emissions of ozone-depleting substances

 

1.5

 

1.0

 

2.2

 

1.5

CFC-11eq1

 

0.1

 

0.1

 

0.1

 

0.1

1

CFC-11eq is a unit of measure used to compare the potential of various substances to deplete the ozone. Reference value 1 indicates the potential of CFC-11 to cause the depletion of the ozone layer.

Substances included: R-12, R-22, R-123, R-141b, R-401a, R-402a, R408a, R-409a, R-502, R-503.

Source for the emission factors: Montreal Protocol.

Other air emissions

Other air emissions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

metric kilotons

 

2018

 

2019

 

2020

 

2021

Volatile organic compounds (VOC)

 

0.3

 

0.3

 

0.3

 

0.3

Nitrogen oxide

 

0.3

 

0.3

 

0.2

 

0.3

Sulfur dioxide

 

0.010

 

0.010

 

0.004

 

0.004

Dust

 

0.010

 

0.010

 

0.010

 

0.020

The VOC, nitrogen oxide, sulfur dioxide, and dust emissions reported here are attributable to production activities as well as energy generation. These figures do not include emissions from vehicles. Emissions are determined partially based on measurements and partially based on calculations or estimates. Only some sites are required to measure individual parameters.

Transport of finished goods, by means of transportation

Transport of finished goods, by means of transportation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2018

 

2019

 

2020

 

2021

% truck

 

74

 

70

 

70

 

71

% boat

 

14

 

19

 

22

 

21

% airplane

 

12

 

11

 

8

 

8

The figures contain the volumes of the biggest global distribution centers of our Life Science, Healthcare and Electronics business sectors. These figures pertain to the total weight of transported products and indicate the primary means of transport.

In shipping finished goods from our production sites to the local warehouses of our subsidiaries, we have been working to reduce the use of air shipping in favor of sea freight. This change aims to both reduce costs as well as lower transport-related CO2 emissions.

Energy consumption

Energy consumption1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In GWh

 

2018

 

2019

 

2020

 

2021
The Group

 

2021
thereof
Merck KGaA,
Darmstadt,
Germany

Total energy consumption

 

2,158

 

2,178

 

2,374

 

2,454

 

628

Direct energy consumption

 

1,261

 

1,288

 

1,266

 

1,318

 

564

Natural gas

 

1,194

 

1,222

 

1,179

 

1,232

 

556

Liquid fossil fuels2

 

33

 

33

 

52

 

48

 

8

Biomass and self-generated renewable energy

 

34

 

33

 

35

 

38

 

0

Indirect energy consumption

 

897

 

890

 

1,108

 

1,136

 

64

Electricity

 

749

 

745

 

945

 

958

 

64

Steam, heat, cold

 

148

 

145

 

163

 

178

 

0

Total energy sold

 

0.0

 

0.1

 

0.2

 

0.1

 

0.0

Electricity

 

0.0

 

0.1

 

0.2

 

0.1

 

0.0

Steam, heat, cold

 

0.0

 

0.0

 

0.0

 

0.0

 

0.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In TJ

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total energy consumption

 

7,770

 

7,839

 

8,546

 

8,834

 

2,261

Direct energy consumption

 

4,541

 

4,637

 

4,558

 

4,745

 

2,030

Natural gas

 

4,298

 

4,399

 

4,244

 

4,435

 

2,002

Liquid fossil fuels2

 

119

 

119

 

187

 

173

 

29

Biomass and self-generated renewable energy

 

124

 

119

 

126

 

137

 

0

Indirect energy consumption

 

3,229

 

3,202

 

3,989

 

4,090

 

230

Electricity

 

2,696

 

2,682

 

3,402

 

3,449

 

230

Steam, heat, cold

 

533

 

520

 

587

 

641

 

0

Total energy sold

 

0.0

 

0.5

 

0.7

 

0.4

 

0.0

Electricity

 

0.0

 

0.5

 

0.7

 

0.4

 

0.0

Steam, heat, cold

 

0.0

 

0.0

 

0.0

 

0.0

 

0.0

1

In line with the Greenhouse Gas Protocol, for all previous years energy consumption has been calculated based on the current corporate structure as of Dec. 31 of the reporting year and retroactively adjusted for acquisitions or divestments of (parts of) companies, or for changes in emission factors (portfolio-adjusted).

2

Light and heavy fuel oil, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), diesel, biodiesel, gasoline and kerosene

At 15 sites we use photovoltaics to produce power.

We currently only record purchased secondary energy – this is primarily electricity and, to a lesser extent, heat/steam/cold. Details on the local energy mix, including the respective percentage of primary energy, renewable energy, etc. are not available. Data on local energy efficiency in electricity or heat generation are not available either. Our production sites are located in countries with a widely varying energy mix.

Our Darmstadt and Gernsheim sites in Germany consume the most energy, representing 25% of our Group-wide total. Here, fossil energy (coal, gas, etc.) accounts for approx. 39%, nuclear energy approx. 12% and renewable energies approx. 49% of the energy mix. Renewable energies account for a higher share of electricity generation at production sites in Switzerland, with nuclear energy taking the lead in France. Based on an estimated global energy efficiency of 37% for the conversion and distribution of generated electricity, this results in a primary energy consumption of 2,589 GWh for 2021. Based on an estimated global energy efficiency of 85% for heat/steam/cold, this results in a primary energy consumption of 209 GWh for 2021. This yields a total primary energy consumption of 2,798 GWh for 2021. (The calculation is based on factors stated in the “Manual for energy management in practice - Systematically reducing energy costs” published by DENA, 12/2012.)
In 2021, our energy intensity relative to net sales totaled 0.12 kWh/€.

Water withdrawal

Water withdrawal

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

millions of m3

 

2018

 

2019

 

2020

 

2021
The Group

 

2021
Water
stress areas

Total water withdrawal

 

14.7

 

14.0

 

14.0¹

 

13.5

 

0.160

Surface water (rivers, lakes)

 

2.1

 

1.9

 

1.8¹

 

1.9

 

0.004

Groundwater

 

7.2

 

6.8

 

6.7

 

6.3

 

0.004

Drinking water (from local suppliers)

 

5.3

 

5.2

 

5.4¹

 

5.2

 

0.150

Rain water and other sources

 

0.05

 

0.05

 

0.06¹

 

0.06

 

0.003

1

Figure retroactively adjusted.

These figures do not include the ground water that we use for safety measures at our Gernsheim site in Germany. Here, the water is fed back directly into natural circulation.

The volume of seawater and produced water withdrawn is not significant and is therefore not reported separately.

Water reused

Water reused

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

millions of m3

 

2018

 

2019

 

2020

 

2021

Water reused

 

24.4

 

23.3

 

22.0

 

23.5

The recirculating cooling system at our Darmstadt, Germany facility accounts for the majority of reused water as it allows the water to be re-utilized multiple times. The volume of reused water is thus greater than the total volume of consumed water.

Wastewater volume

Wastewater volume

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2018

 

2019

 

2020

 

2021
The Group

 

2021
Water
stress areas

Total wastewater volume (millions of m3)

 

13.5

 

13.2

 

13.4

 

13.3

 

0.118

Wastewater discharged directly

 

9.6

 

9.3

 

9.2

 

9.5

 

0.001

Wastewater discharged to third parties

 

3.9

 

3.8

 

4.1

 

3.8

 

0.103

The volume of seawater and groundwater discharged is not significant and is therefore not reported separately.

Discrepancies between total wastewater volume and the sum of directly discharged wastewater and wastewater sent to third parties arise from other disposal methods, which, however, only result in minor amounts of wastewater. Direct discharges correspond to the “freshwater” classification of the GRI. Indirect discharges correspond to their “other water” classification.

Wastewater quality

Wastewater quality1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2018

 

2019²

 

2020

 

2021

Chemical oxygen demand (metric tons of O2)

 

1,509

 

1,568

 

1,482²

 

1,426

Phosphorous (metric tons)

 

10

 

12

 

15

 

11

Nitrogen (metric tons)

 

260

 

481

 

291

 

392

Nickel (kg)

 

30

 

32

 

30

 

37

Lead (kg)

 

30

 

34

 

37

 

15

Cadmium (kg)

 

6

 

6

 

6

 

3

Mercury (kg)

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

1

1

In alignment with ICCA reporting requirements specified by Cefic, we track heavy metal emissions from lead, cadmium, nickel, and mercury.

2

Figure retroactively adjusted.

The wastewater treatment plant at our site in Gernsheim, Germany also treats wastewater from a neighboring municipality. The communal wastewater from this municipality is included in the emissions stated in the table.

Emissions are determined partially based on measurements and partially based on calculations or estimates. Only some sites are required to measure individual parameters.

These figures reflect the wastewater as it is when it leaves our facilities. Some of the substances in the water are then later removed by third-party purification plants before the water is ultimately discharged into the ecosystem.

Hazardous and non-hazardous waste

Hazardous and non-hazardous waste

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

metric kilotons

 

2018

 

2019

 

2020

 

2021

Total waste

 

245

 

244

 

2291

 

214

Hazardous waste disposed2

 

44

 

44

 

38

 

34

Non-hazardous waste disposed2

 

54

 

41

 

34

 

33

Hazardous waste recycled3

 

75

 

78

 

901

 

84

Non-hazardous waste recycled3

 

72

 

81

 

671

 

63

1

Figure retroactively adjusted.

2

Disposed = incineration (without energy recovery) and landfill

3

Recycled = incineration (with energy recovery) and material recycling

Exported/Imported hazardous waste

Exported/Imported hazardous waste

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

metric kilotons

 

2018

 

2019

 

2020

 

2021

Exported1

 

4.5

 

4.3

 

4.0

 

4.6

Imported

 

0.000

 

0.000

 

0.000

 

0.000

1

Disposal primarily within the EU and the United States.

In 2021, approx. 4% of hazardous waste was shipped internationally.

Waste by disposal method

Waste by disposal method

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2018

 

2019

 

2020

 

2021

Total waste (metric kilotons)

 

245

 

244

 

2291

 

214

Disposed waste

 

98

 

85

 

72

 

66

Landfilled waste

 

35

 

26

 

17

 

18

Incinerated waste

 

63

 

59

 

55

 

48

Recycled waste

 

147

 

159

 

1571

 

148

Material recycling

 

127

 

132

 

1331

 

124

Waste-to-energy

 

20

 

27

 

24

 

24

Recycling rate (%)

 

60

 

65

 

69

 

69

1

Figure retroactively adjusted.

As in previous years, the total waste generated continues to be heavily influenced by the waste from construction and remodeling activities. Construction, excavation and demolition waste accounted for 20% of our waste in 2021. Around 32 metric kilotons of construction, excavation and demolition waste was recycled.

Significant spills

Significant spills

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2018

 

2019

 

2020

 

2021

Total number of significant spills

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

CO2 equivalents
CO2 equivalents (CO2eq) indicate how much a specified quantity of a specific greenhouse gas contributes to the greenhouse effect using the global warming potential of carbon dioxide as a reference.
Freshwater
Water containing 1,000 mg or less of dissolved solids per liter.
Greenhouse gases
Gases in the atmosphere that contribute to global warming. They can be either naturally occurring or caused by humans (such as CO2 emissions generated by burning fossil fuels).
Market-based approach
Marked-based figures are calculated on the basis of emission factors provided by electricity suppliers specifically for the electricity they sell.
Other water
Water with more than 1,000 mg of dissolved solids per liter.
Scope 1
This includes emissions that occur in our company, for instance by generating energy from fossil fuels or by releasing process-related emissions.
Scope 2
This includes emissions from purchased energy such as electricity, heat, steam, or cold.
Scope 3
Scope 3 includes indirect greenhouse gas emissions, such as the extraction and production of purchased materials, transport-related activities, waste disposal, and employee travel.

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